Research Images As Art 2014/15 Gallery

Retinal circuitry

Entry No 7.jpg 
Prof Andrew Stockman, Institute of Ophthalmology

The principal cone pathways in the human retina. Both L- and M-cones contact the diffuse bipolar cells (DB) and midget bipolar cells (MB) with which they make inhibitory (sign-inverting or ON) or excitatory (sign-preserving or OFF) connections. The S-cones make inhibitory (sign-inverting or ON) connections with the S-cone bipolar cells (SB). The H1 and H2 horizontal cells make lateral inhibitory connections between cones, but the H1 cells avoid contacts with S-cone. The midget bipolar cells (MB) contact midget ganglion cells (MGC) of the same polarity. The diffuse bipolar cells (DB) contact parasol ganglion cells (PG) of the same polarity. S-cone bipolar cells (SB) contact S-cone bistratified ganglion cells (SBG), which also receive an input from DBOFF cells. Not shown are rods, gap junctions between photoreceptors, OFF S-cone connections, and amacrine cells. Amacrine cells make lateral connections at the level of the bipolar and ganglion cell synapses.


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